Tag: Stone Masonry

Types of Dressing of Stones

Types of Dressing of Stones

The different types of dressing of stones are,

1. Hammer Dressed or Quarry-faced Surface

2. Rough tooled surface

3. Tooled Surface

4. Cut stone Surface

5. Rubbed Surface

6. Polished Surface

The details of types of dressing of stones are as follows,

 

1. Hammer Dressed or Quarry-faced Surface:

This is the roughest form of surface finish. Stone as removed from the quarry has large projections which are knocked off with the quarry hammer and it is finally broken up into blocks of suitable size and shape such as khandki, quoin, or rectangular blocks, The faces of the blocks arc roughly planned and the stone is rendered suitable to be used in masonry. When used in a wall, the roughly finished surfaces arc further modified by forming a 2 cm. to 5 cm. wide margin about the edges of the exposed face.

2. Rough tooled surface:

In this type of surface finish, the projection of the stone block are removed by means of chisels and the surface is nearly dressed true. The corners and the edges are made accurate, chisel draughted margins sunk and the side and bed joints roughly treated to ensure proper bonding.

3. Tooled Surface:

In this type of surface finish continuous parallel chisel marks are produced throughout the width of the stone. The parallel corrugations or chisel marks are made at closer intervals rendering the surface truly planned. Different types of tooled finishes are obtained by use of different chisel and marking patterns.

4. Cut stone Surface:

In this type of surface finish the surface is dressed by using a, sharp chisel so that the chisel marks are practically imperceptible. It is considered superior to tooled surface.

5. Rubbed Surface:

This type of surface finish is obtained by grinding or rubbing a cut stone surface by hand or machine until it gets perfectly smooth.

6. Polished Surface:

The rubbed surfaces of granite, marble of lime stones are polished to enhance their texture. Polishing may be done by manual labour using sand and water, pumice stone etc. or by rubbing machine.

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Ashlar Facing Masonry

Ashlar Facing Masonry

In Ashlar Facing Masonry, the faces of stone are rough tooled, and chamfered and the stones are provided in face work only. The backing may be made in brick, concrete, or rubble as desired. The composite construction reduces the cost of work appreciably. The height of the course is never kept less than 20 cm. and the width of each stone is about 1½ times its height. The bed joints of all the stones arc dressed perfectly true and square. For walls upto 75 cm in thickness, the bond stones should extend for the full thickness of the wall and for thicker walls, the bond stones should overlap each other by 15 cm.

Ashlar Facing Masonry

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Ashlar Chamfered Masonry

Ashlar Chamfered Masonry

This masonry is similar to the one described above with the only difference that the edges around the exposed faces of stone are beveled off at an angle of 45° for depth of 25 mm or more.

Ashlar Chamfered Masonry

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Ashlar Rock, Rustic or Quarry Faced

Ashlar Rock, Rustic or Quarry Faced

This type of construction is similar to ashlar rough tooled except that the exposed faces of face stones between the chisel drafting are left rough. The projections in the space enclosed by chisel drafts are restricted to 75 mm only.

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Ashlar Rough Tooled

Ashlar Rough Tooled

In Ashlar Rough Tooled masonry, the exposed faces of stone generally have a fine dressed chisel drafting all round the edges. The portion of face stone enclosed by the chisel draft is rough tooled. The thickness of joints in this type of work should never exceed 6 mm. In all other respects it conforms to the specifications of Ashlar fine masonry.

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Ashlar Fine Masonry

Ashlar Fine Masonry

In Ashlar Fine Masonry, all the stones are fine tooled, on all bed and side joints, and the faces are rendered perfectly true to the pattern desired. The height of the courses is never less than 30 cm. and generally all the courses are kept of the same height throughout the work. The height of the stones used is never less than their breadth and their length is never less than twice their height. The face stones are generally laid as header and stretcher alternately. For wall below 75 cm. in thickness, the through stones extend to the full thickness of wall. The bed and the side joints in this type of work should never exceed 3 mm. in thickness.

Ashlar Fine Masonry

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Dry Rubble Masonry

Dry Rubble Masonry

The construction of this form is similar to that of ordinary rubble masonry without mortar. Dry Rubble Masonry in which the stones are laid one upon other and the packing with cement mortar is not done. Moreover the locking of stones should be done careful so that the interlocking between them is strong and prevents slippery. These type of masonry is used for temporary works.

Dry Rubble Masonry

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Coursed Rubble Masonry

Coursed Rubble Masonry

Coursed Rubble Masonry is the form of masonry which is commonly adopted in the construction of residential buildings public buildings, piers and abutments for ordinary bridges. Considering the dressing and finishing of the stones, it is further sub-divided into first class, second class and third class masonry. In first class masonry, generally all the courses are of the same height and the minimum height of the course is limited to 15 cm. The face stones are hammer dressed and the projection of the rock-faced surface does not exceed 38 mm. beyond the side or bed joints. The beds of the face stones are hammer or chisel dressed and rendered true and square. In good work, at least one third of the face stones tail back into1bçhearting for a distance equal to two times their height normally, and three times their height for thicker walls. The through stones provided to bind the two faces together are spaced at 18 m. apart and the quoins are of the same height as the height of the course. The length of the quoin is generally kept 45 cm. The thickness of joints in this type should not exceed 10 mm.

Coursed Rubble Masonry

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Random Rubble Masonry

Random Rubble Masonry

Random Rubble Masonry is slightly superior to uncoursed rubble masonry. In this form the stones used in the work are hammer or chisel-dressed. The stones are not suitably shaped or finished and as such the elevation of this type of stone masonry shows irregular shaped stones with non-uniform joints. In a good work the face stones are of uniform colour and approximately equal in size. The height of stones should be greater than their breadth or length of tail into the work.

random rubble masonry

At least one fourth of the face stone should tail back into the heading for ensuring proper strength to the work. The quoins and the through stones are provided in a similar manner as described earlier. The thickness of joints should not exceed 13 mm.

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Uncoursed Rubble Masonry

Uncoursed Rubble Masonry

Uncoursed Rubble Masonry is the poorest form of stone masonry. The stones to be used for the work are directly obtained from the quarry, after merely knocking off weak corner and edges with the mason’s hammer. The stones are carefully laid so as to break joints as much as possible. To avoid thick joints, chips of stone or spalls are wedged into the hearting. The face stones selected from the heap should have uniform colour, uniform bed and greater size. One-fourth of the face stones should tail back in the hearting in the form of headers. Bond stones provided to interlock the two faces should extend up to the full thickness of wall if the wall is less than 60 cm. in thickness. For wall thicker than 60 cm., a line of headers overlapping each other for a length of at least 15 cm. is laid right through the wall. The quoins are chisel or hammer dressed and are laid as header and stretcher alternately. In this work the thickness of joints should not exceed 13 mm.

uncoursed random rubble masonry

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