Raft or Mat Foundations

Raft or Mat Foundations In case of soils having low bearing capacity, heavy structural loads are usually supported by providing raft or mat foundations. Also if the structure is vulnerable to subsidence on  being located in mining area or due to uncertain behaviour of its sub-so...

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Combined Footings

Combined Footings Combined footings are constructed in a way that the centre of gravity of the supporting area coincides the line of centre of gravity of the two column loads. These are usually in the form of rectangular or trapezodial in shape. Rectangular shape is adopted where...

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Grillage Foundations – Steel & Timber Grillage

Grillage Foundation – Steel & Timber Grillage Grillage foundation is used when heavy structural loads from columns, piers or stanchions are required to be transferred to a soil of low bearing capacity.  Grillage foundation is often found to be lighter and more economic...

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Inverted Arch Foundation

Inverted Arch Foundation Inverted Arch Footing/Foundation is used to be provided for multi-storeyed buildings in olden times. However, with the advent of reinforced cement concrete construction practice, inverted arch foooting is rarely done these days. One of the drawbacks in th...

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Wall Footings or Wall Foundations

Wall Footings Wall Footings consists of several courses of bricks, the lowest course being usually twice the breadth of the wall above. The increased base width of the wall is achieved by providing 5 cm (½ brick length) offsets on either side of the wall. The depth of each cours...

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Methods to Improve Bearing Capacity of soils

Some of the methods to improve bearing capacity of soils: Increasing the depth of the footing is the simplest method of improve the bearing capacity of soil, This method is restricted to sites where the sub-soil water level is much below and deep excavations do not increase the c...

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Penetration Test Method Determine Bearing Capacity of Soils

Penetration Test Method – Standard Split Spoon Sampler The equipment used for this test may be a standard split spoon sampler, a cone or other specially shaped tool. The test consists of measuring the resistance offered by the soil to the penetration of the test-tool under ...

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Plate Load Test – Determine Bearing Capacity of Soils

Plate Load Test Plate Load Test is a field test for determining the ultimate bearing capacity of soil and the likely settlement under a given load. The Plate Load Test basically consists of loading a steel plate placed at the foundation level and recording the settlements corres...

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Bearing Capacity of Soils

Bearing Capacity of Soils The bearing capacity of soils is perhaps the most important of all the topics in soil engineering. Soils behave in a complex manner when loaded so, it is important to know the bearing capacity of soils. Soil when stressed due to loading, tend to deform. ...

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Depth and Spacing of Trial Pits or Bore Holes

Depth and Spacing of Trial Pits or Bore Holes The location and the spacing of trial pits or bore holes for a particular site require special consideration. The pits or the bore holes should be so located so as to give adequate information in respect of changes in properties of th...

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