Cold Weather Concreting- Concreting in Cold Weather

Cold Weather Concreting During Cold weather concreting, the rate of hardening and setting of concrete is very much retarded when the temperature falls below 21 deg. C. (70 deg. F.). At about 10 deg. C. (50 deg. F.) the action of setting slows down to about one-half of what it is ...

Read More

Tagged As:

Hot Weather Concreting – Concreting in Hot Weather

Hot Weather Concreting Hot Weather Concreting in tropical countries, such as India, air temperatures may rise up to 40-50 deg. C. during summer months. Such temperatures combined with high wind velocity and/or low humidity enhance the rate of evaporation of the water, increase th...

Read More

Tagged As:

Efflorescence in Brick Work

Efflorescence in Brick Work When soluble salts are present in huge quantities in the bricks or in the mortar, they absorb moisture from air or during construction progress and are brought to the surface in solution and deposited in concentrated patches either in the form of white...

Read More

Tagged As:

Quick Sand Formation/Condition

Quick Sand Formation/Condition Quick sand formation/condition is not a soil type. Quick sand formation/condition is created in saturated thick layers of loose fine sandy soils when disturbed either due to vibration such as from pile driving in the near by locality or due to the p...

Read More

Tagged As: ,

Foundations in Black Cotton Soils

Foundations in Black Cotton Soils: The following methods are generally adopted to meet the characteristics of foundations in black cotton soils,   (1) Foundation loads are limited to 5 tonnes/sq.m if water finds access to the foundations, otherwise it may be about 10 tonnes/...

Read More

Tagged As: , ,

Test for Sand – Fine Aggregate

Test for Sand – Fine Aggregate The required test for sand are as follows, 1. Take a glass of water and add some quantity of sand in it. Then it is vigorously shaken and allowed to settle. If clay is present in sand,its distinct layer is formed at top of sand. 2. For detect...

Read More

Tagged As:

Concrete Shrinkage – Shrinkage of Concrete

Concrete Shrinkage – Shrinkage of Concrete Concrete shrinks during setting and drying due to hydration of cement and produces shrinkage cracks. The drying shrinkage increases with an increase in cement content or an increase in water content. Shrinkage is greater with riche...

Read More

Tagged As: ,

Slump Cone Test and its Advantages – Limitations

Slump Cone Test and its Advantages – Limitations Although, the slump cone test is not entirely satisfactory since it gives widely varying results and also does not give a true measure of workability but it is of value in the field as a control test and is useful in comparin...

Read More

Tagged As: ,

Concrete Bleeding – Bleeding of Concrete

Concrete Bleeding – Bleeding of Concrete Concrete bleeding is the appearance of a watery scum (also called laitance) on the surface of a concrete after compaction. It is- an indication that there is too much water or deficiency of fine material in the mix, or that too much ...

Read More

Tagged As:

Concrete Segregation – Segregation of Concrete

Concrete Segregation – Segregation of Concrete It is the separating of the coarse aggregate from the rest of the mix or the separating of the cement-water paste from the aggregate. Segregation generally indicates poor aggregate grading or mix design. Segregation may occur i...

Read More

Tagged As: